## **How to Calculate Fabric Cost in Processing**

**Fabric Cost Calculation:**

Fabric cost is a very important factor in apparel manufacturing because fabric accounts for 25-40% of the cost of making a garment. So accuracy in this area is critical. By calculating fabric cost, the apparel merchandiser will derive the cost of the overall processes and he or she will conclude the cost of the fabric per kg or for an individual garment or for the order quantity required.

With this value, the merchandiser will seek for the sources to reduce the cost in every processing stage from the yarn sourcing to the finishing. Since the cost of the fabric or raw material is a major driving factor for the cost of the product, the merchandiser or manufacturer will try to keep it as low as possible always to compete in the real-time environment. This article will showcase the consolidated estimation of total fabric cost from the yarn to finishing including all process stages.

I have given some examples for understanding easily that how to calculate fabric cost at different stages of fabric manufacturing.

**Example**:

A woven fabric manufacturing industry received an order to develop fabric with the following description with an order quantity of 40,000 meters. The fabric is made of 100% mercerized cotton in warp and 100% polyester in the weft with the 80EPI, 66 PPI, Warp count is 50s Ne and the weft count is 80 Denier and the warp and weft crimps are 6% and 8%, respectively. Consider that, the fabric consumption per shirt is 1.75 square meters. The fabric has been processed through souring, bleaching (2%), dyeing (4%) and finishing (6%). The weaving shed produces a fabric width of 63” (Table-1).

**Note**: The values inside the brackets near processing steps are weight add-on % for Dyeing and finishing and weight loss percentage for bleaching.

**Table-1: Fabric particulars and their costs**

Fabric particulars and their costs

Fabric particulars and their costs

**Solution:**

To calculate the warp weight,

EPI x 39.384 x 453.4 x (crimp + 100)

Warp weight = —————————————————————————————————

Warp count x 0.914 x 840 x 100

80 x 39.384 x 453.4 x (6 + 100)

= ————————————————————————————————————————

50 x 0.914 x 840 x 100

= 39.44 gram.

To calculate the weft weight,

To convert the weft count from denier to English count (Ne),

5315

= ————————————————————————————————————————————

Denier

5315

= ————————————————————————————————————————————

80

= 66.43

PPI x 39.384 x 453.4 x (crimp + 100)

Weft weight = —————————————————————————————————————-

Weft count x 0.914 x 840 x 100

66 x 39.384 x 453.4 x (8 + 100)

= ——————————————————————————————————————-

66.43 x 0.914 x 840 x 100

**= 24.95 grams.**

Total weight of the fabric = 39.44 + 24.95 = 64.39 gram per square meter.

Weight loss after bleaching = 64.38 × 0.02 =1.28.

Since it is weight loss, the final GSM is = 64.38–1.28 = 63.1

GSM after dyeing = 63.1 × 1.04 = 65.62

GSM after finishing = 65.62 × 1.06 = 69.56.

To calculate the cost of the warp yarn,

= Weight in gram × yarn cost/kg

465

= 39.44× ————————————————————————————-

1000

**= Tk.18.33**

To calculate the cost of the weft yarn,

= Weight in gram × yarn cost/kg

285

= 24.95× ——————————————————————————————–

1000

= Tk.7.11.

- i)
**The total cost of the yarn per square meter of the fabric**= Tk. 18.33 + Tk. 7.11

= Tk. 25.44.

- ii) Weaving cost of the fabric / sq. m = Fabric width × Pick rate

= 63× 0.26 = Tk.16.38.

iii) Cost of the grey fabric = yarn cost + Weaving cost

= 25.44 + 16.38

= Tk. 41.82.

- iv) Processing cost

Scouring cost = Tk. 80 /kg;

64.38

Cost per square meter = 80× ————————————————————– = Tk. 5.15

1000

**Bleaching cost = Tk. 70 /kg**;

64.38

Cost per square meter = 70× ————————————————————– = Tk. 4.50

1000

**Mercerization cost = Tk. 95 /kg**;

63.1

Cost per square meter = 95 × ——————————————————— = Tk. 5.99

1000

**Dyeing cost = Tk.70/ kg;**

65.62

Cost per square meter = 70× —————————————————————— = Tk. 4.59

1000

**Finishing cost = Tk.105/ kg**;

69.56

Cost per square meter = 105× ———————————————————————— = Tk. 7.30

1000

**Total processing cost** = Tk.27.53.

Final fabric cost = Grey fabric cost + Processing cost = 41.82 + 27.53

= Tk. 69.35.

If the fabric consumption per shirt is 1.75 square meter,

The fabric cost per garment is = 1.75 ×69.35 = Tk.121.36.

**Example 2**:

A woven fabric manufacturing industry received an order to develop fabric with the following description with an order quantity of 25,000 meters. The fabric made of 100% cotton in warp and weft with 75 EPI, 70 PPI, Warp count is 60s Ne and the weft count is 40s Ne and the warp and weft crimps are 5% and 6%, respectively. Considering the fabric add on and the other cost details that are provided in Table-2, calculate the cost of the fabric per square meter. The weaving shed produces a fabric width of 56 inches.

**Table-2: Fabric particulars and their costs**

Fabric particulars and their costs

**Solution**:

To calculate the warp weight,

EPI x 39.384 x 453.4 x (crimp + 100)

Warp weight = ————————————————————————————————————————–

Warp count x 0.914 x 840 x 100

75 x 39.384 x 453.4 x (5 + 100)

= —————————————————————————————————————————————-

60 x 0.914 x 840 x 100

= 30.52 gram.

**To calculate the weft weight**,

PPI x 39.384 x 453.4 x (crimp + 100)

Weft weight = —————————————————————————————————-

Weft count x 0.914 x 840 x 100

70 x 39.384 x 453.4 x (6 + 100)

= —————————————————————————————————————————–

40 x 0.914 x 840 x 100

**= 43.14 grams.**

Total weight of the fabric = 30.52 + 43.14

= 73.66 gram per square meter.

To calculate the cost of the warp yarn,

= Weight in gram × yarn cost/kg

310

= 30.52 × ——————————————————————————–

1000

= Tk.9.46

To calculate the cost of the weft yarn,

= Weight in gram × yarn cost/kg

285

= 43.14 × ——————————————————————————————————————-

1000

= Tk.12.29.

- i) The total cost of the yarn per square meter of the fabric = Tk. 9.46 + Tk. 12.29

= Tk. 21.75.

- ii) Weaving cost of the fabric / sq. meter = Fabric width × Pick rate

= 56 × 0.21 = Tk.11.76.

iii) Cost of the grey fabric = yarn cost + Weaving cost = 21.75 + 11.76

= Tk. 33.51.

- iv) Processing cost

Scouring and bleaching cost = Tk. 125 /kg;

73.66 (Total weight)

Cost per square meter = 125 × — ——————————————————————————————–

1000

= Tk. 9.20

Dyeing add on = 73.66 × 1.05 = 77.34 grams / square meter

Dyeing cost = Tk.85/ kg;

77.34

Cost per square meter = 85 × ——————– —————————————————————

1000

= Tk. 6.57

Finishing add on = 77.34 × 1.08 = 83.52

Finishing cost = Tk.65/ kg;

83.52

Cost per square meter = 65 × —————————————————————————————————

1000

= Tk. 5.42

**Total processing cost = Tk.21.19**

Final fabric cost = Grey fabric cost + Processing cost = 33.51 + 21.19 = Tk. 54.7.

**Example 3**:

Find out GSM of knitted fabric, cost of yarn, fabric, and quantity of yarn to be procured for executing an order of Men’s Polo T-shirt made out of 100% mercerized cotton with the following details as in Table-3.

**Table-3: Order details of Men’s polo T-shirt**

Order details of Men’s polo T-shirt

**Solution**:

loop density x (39.384) x (39.384) x loop length in mm

Yarn length in m = ———————————————————————————————–

1000

62 x 48 x (39.384) x (39.384) x 0.58

= —————————————————————————————–

1000

= 2677.32 meters

0.59 x yarn length in m x (100 + shrinkage)

GSM = ——————————————————————————————————–

Count (Ne) x 100

0.59 x 2677.32 x (100 + 8)

= ——————————————————————————————————————

40 x 100

= 42.65 grams per square meter

GSM after compacting = {42.65 + (42.65× 5/100)}= 44.78

GSM after finish = {44.78 + (44.78× 8/100)} = 48.36 grams

To calculate the yarn cost,

= Yarn weight / square meter × Yarn price

365

= 42.65 g × ———————- ———————————————-

1000

**= Tk. 15.57 per square meter.**

**Process charges:**

Knitting charge = 42.65× 26/1000 = Tk. 1.11

Scouring charge = 42.65× 67/1000 = Tk. 2.86

Bleaching charge = 42.65× 42/1000 = Tk. 1.79

Mercerization =42.65× 65/1000 = Tk. 2.77

Dyeing charge (reactive) =42.65×85/1000 = Tk. 3.63

Wrinkle free finish = 48.36× 50/1000 = Tk.2.42

Compacting charge = 44.78× 8 /1000 = Tk. 0.36

**Total fabric cost = (15.57 + 14.94) = Tk. 30.51 / sq.m.**