Interview questions for Industrial Engineering Job
If you work in industrial engineering (IE) department in garments manufacturing industry or wish to work, this writing would help you learn about interviews question and answer. Textile and IPE engineers generally work in industrial engineering department in Apparel industry. These interview questions are given in below collected from Top Garments companies of various positions & covered with answer.
What is muda, mura & muri?
Answer: Muda is a Japanese word which means futility, uselessness, wastefulness; Muda is any constraint or impediment that causes waste to occur. There are two types of muda. Necessary non value adding & non value adding. For example, garments quality checking at end point, customer is not going to pay for it, but it is necessary to keep this section in production line to ensure product standard & parameter. These kinds of muda are sometimes hard to eliminate because they indirectly help value adding processes. Non value adding muda are waste, incur hidden cost & they are known as 7W or 8W and should be eliminated. This is a basic concept of Toyota Production System (TPS).
Mura is a Japanese word which means unevenness, irregularity, no uniformity, inequity. It can be eliminated through Just-In-Time (JIT) system which is no or less inventory system of process improvement. It implies supply of right things of right amount at right time in production process. It follows FIFO system or first-in, first-out to create a pull system in process. Here every sub process withdraw it needs from preceding sub process. In one sense mura elimination creates single piece flow in production process. It is another basic concept of Toyota Production System (TPS).
Muri is a Japanese word which means unreasonableness, impossible, too difficult, by force, compulsorily, excursiveness, moderation. It is one of the basic concepts of Toyota Production System (TPS). It can be avoided through work standardization. Proper work flow, rational methods & takt time analysis is done to avoid muri. Due to ergonomic & safety consideration, standardization become logical, improve work quality & productivity as well as reduce cost.
What do you know about takt time?
Answer: The average time between the start of production of one unit & the start of production of next unit, when these must set to match the rate of customer demand, is called takt time .In short, it is the reflection of rate of production needed to match the demand.
Where, T=Takt time
Ta=Net available time
Net available time is the time available for work completion including break time, maintenance, loss time, brainstorming etc.
What is the difference between LT, TAT & CT?
Answer: LT or lead time is the time interval between order placements to order requirement fulfillment. It is a defined time interval by supplier or service provider or buyer or customer.
TAT or turnaround time is the time interval between a job start and output deliver as per predefined time.
CT is the time interval between starting of a job & completion of the job.
LT= order place time→ process startup time→process start→Process→Process end→Order delivery time
TAT= process startup time→process start→Process→Process end→Order delivery time
CT= process start→Process→Process end
What do you understand by Gemba?
Answer: Gemba or Genba is a Japanese term which means the actual place. This actual place refers production floor in Toyota Production System concept. In lean manufacturing system, it is a sudden visit process at production floor to identify the real scenario. Best improvement comes from real scenario. The team leader can see the real condition, do communicate, as reason with politeness. It also creates a trust & transparency between lower level & management. It helps to identify wasteful activities & helps not to make any superficial decision. The Gemba walk is a daily work to do by lean leader with or without the team & practical improvement of mess situations. For example, morning time Gemba walk helps production leader to find about line work in process, input crisis, quality issues etc. and he can give suggestion or take step as per real scenario.
What do you understand by Toyota Production System, Heijunka & Jidoka?
Answer: It is an socio-technical integrated system by Toyota. It is actually the concept of JIT or just in time production to reduce process time, production time & response time. The main objective is to avoid muri, mura & muda. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing is a production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus or in advance of need. In short, TPS is major precursor of Lean Manufacturing. Founded on the conceptual pillars of Just in time manufacturing, lean, kaizen, jidoka and preventative maintenance.
Heijunka is a Japanese term called smoothing or leveling production or demand. It is process to reduce mura or unevenness which basically reduce muda or waste. It helps to improve productivity & efficiency. The main focus is to produce or supply intermediate goods at a constant rate so that process, production or assembly can carry with a constant & predictable rate.
Jidoka is a Japanese term called intelligent automation or human touch automation. It is not about production function; it is supervisory function. In TPS, it means a quality control process by following four steps.
- Detect abnormality: Machine or operator detects a defect or deviation from normal situation.
- Stop: Line is stopped either automatically or by the operator and a signal is given to team leader.
- Fix immediate condition: The deviation is inspected and the condition is fixed immediately.
- Investigate root cause & install counter measure: Once the line is up, root cause of the deviation is investigated and relevant measures are installed to curb future problems.
Its goal is to prevent quality issues, overproduction elimination & problem findings with permanent solutions.
What do you understand by 5D?
Answer: Absence of 5S in production floor results 5 devils or 5D. They are:
- 4D-Dangerous (Unsafe) workplace
- 5D-Demoralized employees
All 5D results in dissatisfied customer & decrease profit.